Welcome to the website of the OECD International Cartels Database. This database contains approximately 200 references related to international hard core cartels since 2012 from approximately 50 jurisdictions. The included cartels are those in which competition authorities have issued decisions against (and possibly fined) cartels, and/or in which private damages have been collected. This database provides an exceptionally valuable source of information about such cartels, including information on global penalties, geographic extension, industries, dates, jurisdictions, and cartel participants. The database builds on the world-leading database on private international hard core cartels developed by Professor John Connor, which was acquired by the OECD in 2017.
The OECD International Cartels Database will be released in different stages, starting with a first release of the references to cartels that were discovered between 2012-2018.
Hardcore cartels – In defining a hardcore cartel, the database follows the definition used in the Recommendation of the Council concerning Effective Action against Hard Core Cartels (2019):Hard core cartels refers to anticompetitive agreements, concerted practices or arrangements by actual or potential competitors to agree on prices, make rigged bids (collusive tenders), establish output restrictions or quotas, or share or divide markets by, for example, allocating customers, suppliers, territories, or lines of commerce. They do not include: (a) agreements, concerted practices, or arrangements that are reasonably related to a legitimate efficiency-enhancing integration of economic activity; (b) agreements, concerted practices or arrangements that might otherwise qualify as hard core cartels, which are directly or indirectly exempted from the coverage of Adherents’ competition laws or are mandated in accordance with Adherents’ laws.
International cartels - International refers primarily to membership composition: the companies involved in the cartel need to be headquartered in at least two different countries. The database refers to the nationality of the parent company regardless of the geographic extension of the cartel.
The use of the OECD International Cartels Database is governed by the Terms and Conditions governing the OECD website www.oecd.org, which you can access via the link at the bottom of this webpage.
The OECD International Cartels Database is based on public sources. The OECD cannot guarantee that the OECD International Cartels Database is error-free and accepts no liability whatsoever for timeliness, correctness and completeness.
The OECD International Cartels Database includes information on company ownership, using three levels (subsidiary, intermediate and parent company). The ownership structure in the OECD International Cartels Database reflects the structure at the time of the infringement. The existence of an intermediate or parent company in the OECD International Cartels Database does not presume that they took part in the cartel infringement. Furthermore, the ownership structure is reported regardless of the applicable legislation regarding joint liability in the relevant jurisdiction.
The OECD International Cartels Database is based on the competition agencies’ (first) official decision and information on appeal may not have been included in the OECD International Cartels Database. Therefore, a “fine” in the OECD International Cartels Database indicates the fine imposed by the competition authority reported in the (first) official decision. A “fine after appeal” indicates the fine imposed after a decision on appeal which is publicly released.
The fines are reported in millions of USD using the currency exchange rates at the time of the decision, or if not clear, the 31st December of the year of the decision.
The information in the OECD International Cartels Database does not necessarily reflect the official views of the OECD or of its Member countries. The OECD International Cartels Database may be modified over time without notice. The OECD would welcome any correction of typos or inaccuracies. Please e-mail ICSTATS@oecd.org.